Atypical dermatitis in children and adults - causes, symptoms and treatment

A hereditary disease such as atypical dermatitis appears in a child and an adult in the form of a skin rash. The pathological process occurs in early childhood and is prone to recurrence. Throughout life, periodically manifests itself at the time of occurrence of predisposing factors. Spots can affect any area of ​​the skin and are accompanied by unpleasant symptoms.

What is atypical dermatitis

One of the forms of eczema affecting the epidermis layer is called atopic skin neurodermatitis. It has a chronic and periodic form of manifestation. Atypical dermatitis is a subspecies of atopic dermatitis, a process of skin change at the cellular level, which is accompanied by itching, redness of a certain area. The healthy surface of the skin protects cells from environmental influences by a natural barrier. The disease deprives the skin of the ability to defend itself against infections due to depletion of the cellular compounds of the keratin layer.

Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis

Depending on the age group of the patient and the severity of the disease, the symptom complex may vary. There is a mild, moderate and severe course of the disease. A common symptom of all three forms is the visible manifestation of the ailment. What does atopic dermatitis look like? Externally manifests itself as a skin rash, spots or vesicles with a clear liquid (papules). The mild form occurs in the form of a simple urticaria, and then the rashes become saturated red. Other symptoms of atopic dermatitis:

  • papules merge into one common affected area of ​​the skin;
  • constant itching, which is felt more strongly at night;
  • weight loss;
  • redness with fluid (exudates with weeping);
  • hyperpigmentation.

The localization of the atypical rash depends on one of three types of pathology:

  1. Diffuse - a rash on all parts of the body.
  2. Common - it also affects all parts of the body, has borders.
  3. Localized - a rash on a small lesion area with a clear boundary.

Chronic atopic dermatitis

Atypical eczema is hereditary, it is impossible to cure it forever. Chronic atopic dermatitis is genetically determined and makes itself felt in infancy. The pathology of the epidermal layer occurs due to internal causes, therefore it is not considered a skin disease and is not transmitted. It is necessary to control atypical eczema, to avoid provoking factors. If the clinical picture of the disease worsens, then this affects the patient's ability to work. In some cases, if the disease develops, disability is documented.

Causes of Atopic Dermatitis

The only scientifically proven cause of atopic dermatitis is a genetic predisposition. Atypical eczema manifests itself only in the presence of favorable conditions for the development of the disease. The risk group includes people who have inherited the disease, allergies, men after 40 years, women after 30. Atypical skin lesions are allergic in nature. Atopic allergy is established as a response to irritants:

  • food (food);
  • contact (in contact with the material of clothing);
  • respiratory (poor environmental conditions, dust, pollen, household chemicals);
  • animal hair.

The severity of symptoms depends on the presence of chronic diseases in a person and a number of other pathologies that undermine the immune system. Factors that increase the onset, spread, severity of atypical eczema include:

  • neglected infectious foci;
  • stress, nervous system disorder;
  • intestinal dysbiosis;
  • the mobile state of the psyche in adolescents;
  • hormonal disruptions;
  • climatic period of women;
  • digestion problems.

Atopic dermatitis in children

In most cases, if a person has inherited atypical eczema, then this will be known in infancy. An immature immune system cannot withstand a large number of new allergens. Atopic dermatitis in children is characterized by a rash, localized on the face, elbows, knees of the child. When deciding to start complementary foods, consult a pediatrician. In some cases, the infant form of dermatitis is called diathesis. In the first 12 years of life, the disease can manifest itself in the following stages:

  • infant;
  • children’s;
  • teenage.

Diagnosis of atopic dermatitis

If you take a blood test, then in the presence of atypical eczema, the results will show an elevated level of class E immunoglobulins. It is necessary to make a skin test to detect antigen. So the provoking factor will become known. A dermatologist may prescribe more sophisticated medical tests if skin diseases are suspected. When diagnosing atypical eczema, a hereditary factor plays an important role.

Taking into account the history and questions about the presence of the disease in blood relatives, the severity of blood pressure in infancy, an examination of the affected areas is carried out. When diagnosing atopic dermatitis, the diagnosis takes into account the main and additional symptoms. To confirm the analyzed disease, the severity of the main or 3 additional signs is necessary. Information about the symptoms of the disease, which are taken into account when diagnosing, is presented in the form of a table:

Types of SymptomsSigns of blood pressure for diagnosis
The main
  • rashes;
  • localization on the limbs and face;
  • relapses
  • itchy skin.
Additional
  • cheilitis (inflammatory processes in the corners of the mouth);
  • dry skin;
  • atopic skin flakes;
  • folds on the palms, soles, neck;
  • conjunctivitis.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis in adults

HELL can go away on its own and never manifest itself throughout life. If a defect in the immune system persists, the disease can drag on and affect the health of an adult. After 12 years, the course of the pathology changes, and it is called adult atopic dermatitis, which cannot be completely cured. You can help relieve the symptoms of itching that a person suffers from and remove redness. Treatment of atopic dermatitis in adults is carried out by such means:

  • antihistamines (Claritin, Zyrtec);
  • membrane stabilizers (ketotifen);
  • sedatives (Afobazole, valerian or motherwort extract);
  • anti-inflammatory glucocorticosteroids (Celestoderm).

Ointments for atopic dermatitis in adults

In the Russian pharmaceutical market, there are hormonal and non-hormonal ointments for atopic dermatitis in adults. Allergists say that monotherapy, including gels and creams, is not very effective, so you should first determine the cause of the skin reaction. Then irritants should be eliminated and special ointments should be chosen, using them in complex treatment with other drugs.

The elimination of symptoms using hormonal drugs is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. The following non-hormonal creams will help remove itching and swelling:

  • Eplan;
  • Bepanten;
  • Skin cap;
  • Exoderyl;
  • Radevit;
  • Gistan;
  • Elidel;
  • Protopic;
  • Fenistil;
  • Losterin;
  • Thymogen;
  • Naftaderm;
  • We see
  • Actovegin and others

Topicrem with atopic dermatitis

To care for affected skin areas, a product developed by the French laboratory Nizhi is used. Topikrem with atopic dermatitis is suitable for infants, children and adults for the regeneration of skin cells of the face and body. Relipidating fatty substances that make up the cream allow you to maintain a moisturized effect throughout the day. Topikrem has various convenient forms of release (milk, gel), which have a healing effect and have the necessary properties for the treatment of infantile eczema:

  • eliminates tightness;
  • softens the skin;
  • gives elasticity;
  • restores hydration;
  • regenerates the hydro-lipid film of the skin.

Cream with zinc for atopic dermatitis

Zinc ointments have a beneficial effect on atopic diathesis. The substance reduces the symptoms of the disease, having a beneficial effect on the cells of the epidermis. Zinc is present in all human organs. The daily norm is 10 mg of zinc. Together with food, only 25% of the amount necessary for the body is consumed. Medicines for atopic dermatitis contain zinc oxide, which has a number of medicinal properties:

  • absorbs UV radiation;
  • regenerates;
  • active against inflammation;
  • acts as an antiseptic.

An advantage of using a cream with zinc in atopic dermatitis is the inability of zinc compounds to cause allergies. Children should apply the ointment twice a day to clean, dry skin. For adults and adolescents, the medication can be used more often. List of popular zinc creams:

  • Salicylic-zinc ointment;
  • Bureau plus;
  • Zinc ointment;
  • Tsinokap;
  • Desitin;
  • Sudokrem;
  • Tsindol (talker);
  • Glutamol

Tablets for atopic dermatitis in adults

Pills for atopic dermatitis in adults will help calm the annoying itching and remove the rashes. Before using the drug inside, it is necessary to consult with your doctor to exclude the risk of side effects. Each individual drug must be taken in accordance with the instructions. The following are medications to help treat symptoms. These include:

  • Clarotadine;
  • Asmoval 10;
  • Clarifer;
  • Ketotifen.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

At a young age, when rashes are detected, it is very important not to let the development of the disease take its course. If you approach the treatment in all seriousness, you can prevent the transformation of the illness of the child into a more severe form. Before proceeding to the medication method of treating a baby, it is necessary to identify and eliminate adverse factors, allergens, and start to follow a diet. The main principles of treatment of atopic dermatitis in children are:

  1. Auxiliary therapy, the purpose of which is to maximize skin hydration (emollients are used).
  2. The main treatment in the form of ointments (local corticosteroids).
  3. In severe cases, UV irradiation procedures are performed and the intake of stronger drugs begins.

Treatment of atypical dermatitis with folk remedies

Treating infantile eczema is a long and expensive process. The body of many patients is not able to bear the constant intake of pills. Treatment of atypical dermatitis with folk remedies comes to the rescue. For example, celandine juice, diluted with boiled water in a ratio of 1: 2, is used in the form of applications that are placed on the site for 15 minutes. Other natural remedies have proven effective:

  • hop;
  • tar;
  • periwinkle;
  • Japanese Sophora;
  • succession;
  • wine;
  • herbal infusions;
  • tar soap;
  • potatoes;
  • geranium or tea tree oil.

Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis

In medical practice, there are three ways to prevent atopic dermatitis - physiotherapy, diet and recreation of a hypoallergenic environment. The latter is necessary to eliminate allergens and contact routes with factors that cause irritation, exacerbation of the manifestations of dermatitis. It is important to follow the principles of prevention, otherwise therapeutic measures will be useless. It is recommended to choose and follow a special diet diet:

  1. With a ban on alcohol, citrus fruits, seafood, coffee, nuts, chocolate, fish, spices, tomatoes, eggplant, red pepper, mustard, mayonnaise, milk, sausages, sausages.
  2. With frequent use of soups, vegetable oil, porridge, boiled potatoes, cucumbers, parsley, tea, dill, lactic acid products, one-day cottage cheese, baked apples, dried fruit compote or apples.

Video: How to treat atopic dermatitis

Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

Watch the video: ATOPIC DERMATITIS Symptoms, Causes & Treatments (February 2020).