Red spots on the face occur for a reason, especially if they are non-transient. The causes of this phenomenon are inflammation of the skin or the expansion of subcutaneous blood vessels, which is why they began to be visible through the skin. Various factors can provoke such a state - from frost on the street to pathology of internal organs, among which gynecological diseases, renal failure, cirrhosis. For this reason, if the redness does not go away for a long time, you must consult a doctor to do treatment.
Why does redness occur on the face
Skin is the largest organ of the human body: its area ranges from 1.5-2.3 m2. It is a durable multilayer elastic cover that performs a huge number of functions. Among them:
- protection of internal organs from damage, penetration of microorganisms, chemicals;
- dehydration prevention;
- participation in respiration, thermoregulation, metabolic processes;
- touch through nerve endings;
- elimination of toxins and body waste products from the body as a sweat (excess salts, ammonia, urea);
- sebum secretion (secretory function), which ensures the elasticity of the epidermis, creates a protective environment on its surface;
- participation in the production of vitamin D.
The skin consists of three layers - the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis is the upper layer visible to the eye, consisting of five layers. Its thickness ranges from 0.5 mm on the eyelids to 1.5 mm on the palms. Cells of the lower layer of the epidermis continuously divide, responsible for the rapid renewal, restoration, healing of the skin. After division, they begin to move up.
As you move in the cells of the skin, the amount of keratin and other dense proteins increases, and the process of division slows down. The upper layer consists of dead, dead cells, which are continuously exfoliated. With this method, the skin of an adult is completely updated within two months, in a baby - in three days.
The middle layer is the dermis, with a thickness of 0.3 to 3 mm. It consists of connective tissue containing collagen, muscle fibers, nerve endings. Veins, arteries, capillaries run through this layer, through which nutrients enter the blood. This method provides nutrition not only of the dermis, but also of the epidermis, where there are no blood vessels.
The lowest layer is the hypodermis, known as subcutaneous fat. Its task is to protect internal organs from external damage. The thickness of the hypodermis ranges from 2 mm on the head to 10 cm on the buttocks. There are many vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, ducts of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles (the place where hair originates) are located.
The main causes of facial redness are inflammation and expansion of blood vessels in the dermis or hypodermis under the influence of external or internal causes. Because of this, they begin to shine through the epidermis, giving the skin a red color. Coloring can be from pinkish to raspberry-burgundy, which depends on the thickness of the upper layer of the skin and the cause of the discoloration. These can be both physiological and pathological factors.
Causes of facial redness
The wind, low temperature, smoking, alcohol, stress, hard work, vigorous massage - these are the physiological causes of redness. They are the normal response of the body to the effects of adverse factors for the epidermis and subcutaneous vessels. Unlike pathological reasons, they are never accompanied by dryness, itching, peeling, nevertheless, a burning sensation may appear: for example, when a person is in a warm room after severe frost.
The causes of pathological redness include situations that cannot be explained by the natural nature of the origin, since they provoke the development of reactions characteristic of inflammatory processes in the skin. This condition may be accompanied by burning, itching, peeling and other unpleasant sensations. The following reasons can provoke pathological redness on the face:
- vascular pathologies;
- diseases of the internal organs;
- mental illness.
It is not always easy to distinguish the physiological nature of redness from the pathological. You can focus on the following symptoms:
- With physiological redness, the stained area does not have a clear boundary. Redness simultaneously covers the cheeks, nose, forehead, chin, smoothly turns into a natural color. If the cause is a mechanical effect (rubbing the skin in a certain area), only the affected area reddens.
- With pathological redness, the stained area has smooth borders, often covering a certain area (only the nose, cheeks, etc.). At first, the color is slightly pronounced, with time it acquires a more intense color, does not pass until the provoking factor is eliminated, but even after that traces may remain.
- With a physiological character, the skin turns red quickly, the severity of the color does not increase. When the effect of the provoking factor ends, the redness disappears without a trace, without causing negative consequences.
There are many reasons that are not related to pathological processes in the body that can provoke a temporary expansion of blood vessels on the face. These include:
- ambient temperature - cold, heat, icy or hot water;
- strong wind;
- intense friction - massage, rubbing, vigorous rubbing of cream, scrub, and other cosmetics;
- prolonged exposure to skin dust;
- hard work or active exercise;
- a long stay in a position where the head is below the lower back (weeding cities);
- injuries, burns.
The expansion of blood vessels can provoke psycho-emotional factors. It can be:
- any strong feelings - fear, shame, joy, excitement, emotional stress, joy;
- excitement before important events (speaking to an audience, interview, important conversation);
- feeling of self-doubt;
- complexes, fears, psychological barriers.
Influencing or stressful factors can develop a blushing syndrome. This condition is characterized by redness of the face in any exciting circumstances. Redness spots the skin and does not last long. In such situations, a person often feels discomfort, because he understands that his excitement is noticeable to others. The cause of the blushing syndrome is too active the sympathetic nervous system, because of which the vessels on the face expand not only in severe stressful situations, but also with a little excitement.
Medications for the blushing syndrome are ineffective because they are unable to affect the ability of the sympathetic nervous system to respond to various factors. The treatment in this case involves a surgical operation: in its course, a clip is attached to the nerve through which the brain gives orders to the vessels of the face to expand, or it is cut at all. The method is effective in 95% of cases.
Vasodilation can provoke an allergic reaction. This is the name of the response of the immune system to a specific irritant (allergen), which she perceived as a threat to the health and life of the owner. Anything can provoke such a reaction:
- pollen, fluff;
- dust mites, cockroaches;
- pet hair;
- food products - nuts, eggs, seafood, milk, legumes, citrus fruits, etc .;
- insect bites.
Among the manifestations of allergies - redness of the skin, accompanied by itching, swelling. The symptom of an allergic reaction is dermatitis - inflammation of the skin, manifested by a rash, pimples, blisters, pustules (pustules), cracks through which the infection can easily penetrate. An allergy is dangerous because it rarely goes away on its own, and if the allergen is not eliminated, it can provoke anaphylactic shock, death. As soon as the irritant is eliminated, the allergic reaction disappears, the redness completely disappears.
Redness of the skin on the face in women can trigger infectious diseases. Among them:
- Cold or flu. Under the influence of high temperature, the vessels expand, which leads to the appearance of a blush;
- Demodecosis Chronic disease with periods of exacerbation. It is characterized by the penetration of a tick into the skin, the waste products of which leads to an allergic reaction. Demodecosis is manifested by itching, swelling, redness of the eyelids, the appearance of scales in the eyelashes.
- Erysipelas or erysipelas. The reason is the penetration of beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A under the skin. The onset of the disease is acute, the symptoms of intoxication are pronounced - migraine, weakness, chills, nausea, fever, swelling and tightening of the skin. Among the complications are necrosis, ulcers. The disease is prone to relapse, especially if untreated. Therapy of the disease involves the use of antibiotics.
- Acne vulgaris or acne. Chronic inflammation of the skin, during which there is a blockage of the sebaceous glands at the base of the hair follicle, which leads to the formation of comedones in the form of black and white formations, pustules, redness at the site of inflammation.
- Fungal affection. Among them are trichophytosis and microsporia, commonly known as ringworm. Trichophytosis is characterized by reddish round spots that itch and itch, damage to the roots of the hair, which causes baldness. Symptoms of microsporia are round or oval clearly defined red spots with peeling. The fungus also affects hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, because of which the hair rods break off at a height of 5-6 mm.
- Measles, scarlet fever, and chickenpox are acute infectious diseases characterized by high fever and a red, itchy rash.
The cause of redness may be inflammation, which develops after the immune system reacts to the penetration of a certain parasite into the body and sends white blood cells to destroy it. If immune cells do not cope with the pathogen, they die, forming pus, attracting new white blood cells to the site of the lesion. Various situations can provoke inflammation on the face. Among them:
- Reaction to poor-quality or improperly selected cosmetics.
- Skin contact with chemicals.
- Skin diseases - psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema.
- Photosensitivity - hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, provoked by medication, laser hair removal or other procedure. When skin is exposed to sunlight, inflammation develops, accompanied by redness, swelling, itching. After stopping the medication, the body ceases to respond to the sun.
Pathology of the internal organs
With diseases of the internal organs, redness is often permanent and does not disappear until complete healing. In this situation, the expansion of capillaries is a symptom of a pathology, and to eliminate it, it is necessary to deal with the treatment of the underlying disease. The complexion can be either pinkish or dark cherry in color, depending on the stage of the disease. The following pathologies can provoke a change in skin color:
- high body temperature, regardless of the cause of facial redness in women, men, children;
- atherosclerosis (deposition of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels);
- hypertension, heart failure, other pathologies associated with the work of the myocardium;
- low acidity of gastric juice;
- frequent constipation;
- trigeminal trauma;
- drug use;
- chronic diseases of the ear-throat-nose (rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.);
- gynecological problems;
- parasitic diseases;
- digestive tract problems (cholecystitis, gastritis, renal failure, cirrhosis);
- poisoning by alcohol, drugs;
- autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus);
- erythrocytosis (pathological increase in red blood cells).
Vascular diseases are capable of provoking redness, among them - rosacea. It is characterized by high sensitivity of blood vessels to changes in temperature, wind, heat, cold and other environmental factors that negatively affect the epidermis. In response to this effect, the skin turns red, the color persists for a long time even after getting into comfortable conditions, accompanied by a burning sensation. With rosacea, pink acne may appear, a thickening of the nose with the formation of nodules (papules) or tubercles can be observed.
The cause of persistent redness is rosacea, characterized by the expansion of blood vessels of the skin, in which their elasticity is lost. Capillaries are clearly visible in the form of a mesh. Pathology can be triggered by a long stay on the street under adverse conditions (work in winter) or internal pathologies, including hypertension, cirrhosis, gastritis.
Rosacea and rosacea are not the only vascular pathologies that can provoke redness. It is worth highlighting such diseases as:
- skin hemangioma - a benign tumor of the vessels, often manifests itself in the form of a node from capillaries closely adjacent to each other, can protrude above the surface of the epidermis;
- Kazabaha-Meritt syndrome - occurs in the first year of life, is characterized by hemangiomas, anemia, a low platelet count;
- Klippel-Trenone-Weber syndrome - a hereditary disease, accompanied by a birthmark, hypertrophy of bones and soft tissues, varicose veins;
- Osler-Randu disease - a hereditary pathology characterized by numerous vascular networks on the face that bleed;
- Louis-Bar syndrome - manifested by capillary "asterisks", impaired coordination, low immunity.
Types of redness on the face
The shape of the spots on the face largely depends on the cause that provoked a change in the color of the skin. It could be:
- Redness on the forehead, cheeks, gradually turning into the natural color of the skin, is characterized by a quick disappearance in comfortable conditions. It is provoked by physiological reasons.
- Inflammation accompanied by acne.
- A rash is a symptom of an allergy.
- Exudative form - spots of various shapes appear on the skin, in the place of which vesicles, sores form. Formations itch, hurt, are often accompanied by temperature. The reason for their appearance is viruses, staphylococci, streptococci, sometimes antibiotics and anticonvulsants.
- Nodular form - red rashes in the form of dense, round, painful formations. Sizes - from a small rash to large formations, up to 10 cm in diameter. The reason is viruses.
- Ring-shaped - spots of different sizes with a clearly colored edge. Signals a bacterial or fungal infection, allergy, or autoimmune disease.
- Migratory form. Spots occur at the sites of tick bites or insects if they are carriers of diseases (for example, Lyme). After some time, irritation can move away from the bite, growing in size.Having found such a stain, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.
Red spots are often accompanied by symptoms that help establish the cause of the change in complexion. It can be:
- Peeling. Signals about hypersensitivity to weather conditions, poor-quality cosmetics, vitamin deficiency. It happens with demodicosis, fungal and skin diseases, lesions of internal organs.
- Itching Symptom characteristic of allergic reactions. Accompanies measles, rubella, scarlet fever. If combined with peeling, dryness or lasts more than 20 days, it indicates a skin disease.
- Burning. It happens with allergies, rosacea, develops with a long stay in adverse conditions for the skin, due to a sharp expansion of blood vessels, a long stay with a lowered head, after strong physical exertion, emotional stress.
- Redness around the nose is a symptom of diseases of the digestive tract or perioral dermatitis.
Redness treatment on the face
Red spots can be removed using etiotropic or symptomatic therapy. The first option is aimed at eliminating the cause of redness. If this is a pathology of the internal organs, it is necessary to do treatment. In this case, the disappearance of redness will speak of recovery. If the reason is a psychological factor, it is necessary to undergo a course of psychotherapy or do exercises aimed at stabilizing the nervous system. You can reduce the aggressive effects of the environment with the help of protective cosmetics.
Symptomatic treatment is aimed at reducing the intensity of redness. This method is resorted to if it is not possible to get rid of the pathological cause, so the effect does not last long. To this end, use special cosmetics, aloe juice, resort to washing with cold water.
Skin Care and Nutrition Rules
Avoid red spots on the face, reduce the strength of their manifestation using proper nutrition and proper skin care. To this end, you must perform the following steps:
- wash only with warm water, the temperature of which ranges from 32-34 ° C;
- do not rub your face with a towel after washing, but gently pat it with napkins;
- apply cream, tonic and other cosmetics with slightly patting movements, avoiding vigorous rubbing;
- Do not sit for a long time in a hot bath, abandon the bath and sauna;
- Do not put hot masks on your face;
- avoid the use of aggressive scrubs, alcohol lotions, flavored gel and soap;
- to clean the epidermis and remove makeup use soft preparations without perfumes;
- in the morning, apply a high-quality moisturizer to the skin, in the evening after cleansing - a nourishing cream;
- quit smoking;
- if necessary, mask redness, you can resort to concealer (special corrector).
Human health largely depends on the food he uses. After food is absorbed in the digestive tract, the elements extracted from it enter the bloodstream and participate in metabolic processes. For this reason, low-quality products harm the body, including harming the skin, causing on its part a response in the form of redness, rash, itching. To avoid such manifestations, it is necessary to exclude from the diet or significantly limit the use of:
- strong tea;
- fried, sweet, spicy dishes;
- spicy food;
- sweets, chocolates;
- fast food.
Salon procedures will help eliminate facial redness. To this end, resort to the following measures:
- surface chemical peeling, with which the upper layer of the epidermis is removed;
- cryomassage - a treatment method that involves a combination of exposure to cold skin with massage movements;
- mechanical cleaning and masks - allow you to get rid of acne, inflammation, peeling;
- laser therapy or electrocoagulation - relieves the skin of spider veins;
- mesotherapy - the effect on the middle layer of the dermis with active substances;
- biorevitalization - saturation of the deep layers of the skin with nutrients (drugs are administered by injection).
If redness is provoked by pathologies of internal organs, the effect of salon procedures will be short-lived. How long it lasts depends on the cause of skin staining, general health, epidermis care, and the presence of chronic diseases.
You can get rid of redness with the help of pharmacy ointments. Among them, the following drugs are worth highlighting:
- Fenistil-Gel - relieves swelling, irritation, itching;
- Gistan - eliminates irritation;
- Boromentol - characterized by a cooling effect, refreshes the skin, relieves redness, itching;
- creams of the Quasix group - relieve redness, inflammation, effective in demodicosis and rosacea;
- Troxevasin - narrows and strengthens blood vessels;
- Naphthyzin is a vasoconstrictor;
- Boro plus - eliminates acne, acne, dryness, peeling, softens and moisturizes the skin, relieves redness;
- Bepanten - promotes the restoration and regeneration of tissues, regulates cellular metabolism, maintains collagen levels, eliminates inflammation.
To eliminate redness, folk remedies will help. To get the effect of their use, a course of 8-10 procedures is needed. You can prepare an effective remedy for facial redness according to one of the following recipes:
- Mix chopped parsley with sour cream. Apply the mixture evenly on the face, hold for a quarter of an hour, rinse with warm water. Apply the mask in a day.
- 2 tsp mix fat cottage cheese with 1 tsp. vegetable oil, add five drops of grapefruit juice. Apply the mixture on the face, keep for 20 minutes, rinse with cool water. The mask can be done daily.
- Brew strong black tea, cool. Moisten gauze in infusion, put on face, leave for half an hour. Such compresses can be done 1-2 times a day for a long time.
- Grate potatoes, put the pulp in cheesecloth, squeeze out the liquid. Wipe the face with potato juice after washing 2-3 times a day.
A steam bath with hops will help soothe inflamed skin and relieve redness. To this end, pour 15 g of chopped grass into an enameled pot, pour a liter of cold water, put on a small fire, bring to a boil. Remove from the stove, bend over the decoction, cover your head with a plaid or terry towel. Owners of dry skin soar for 3-4 minutes, oily - ten. After the procedure, apply moisturizing milk or cream to the epidermis.Rosacea. What makes the face red. Live healthy! (06/23/2016) Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.