Cyperus is a large genus of perennial evergreen herbaceous plants of the sedge family (Cyperaceae), in which there are more than 600 species. Cyperus is also called the sedge of the common leaf, feeding, swamp palm, detective, venus grass. The flower is very loved by many gardeners for their unpretentiousness and attractive appearance. Cyperus is characterized by bright green long flowering stems and leaves located with an umbrella. It is believed that it helps to expel negative energy, fight depression.
The birthplace of cyperus is the tropical part of Africa and the island of Madagascar. Under natural conditions with a subtropical climate, places of its growth are the shores of lakes, swamps, rivers. Upon close contact with water, it forms whole thickets. Cyperus has erect reed-like trihedral stems, at the top of each of which there is an umbrella-shaped whorl of sessile linear leaves. The color of the latter depends on the species, ranging from light green to saturated.
Growing in vivo, cyperus is able to reach 3-5 meters in height. There are some species that do not exceed 50 cm. The flowering period is June-July, although this parameter also varies from variety. The flowers are small, pale green or milky, after which the fruits appear - brown spikelets or nuts. Ciperus is pollinated by the wind and has a long creeping root.
Types and varieties of plants
Not all cyperuses are suitable for growing in greenhouses or at home, only a few varieties are suitable for this. Their characteristic features are rapid growth, resistance to many pests and diseases, unpretentiousness in the maintenance and care. For home growing, these varieties of cyperus are perfect:
Cyperus papyrus flower (Cyperus papyrus)
One of the oldest species. The flower gained fame due to the fact that once in ancient Egypt they made papyrus (a kind of paper), wove mats, baskets, made boats. It reaches a height of three meters - a giant. In the wild, it grows in the swamps of Egypt and Ethiopia, and in culture - in greenhouses. The papyrus has upright strong stems, at the ends of which there are thick whorls of long hanging leaves. In the sinuses are multi-flowered inflorescences on thin pedicels.
Umbrella (alternate leaf)
This flower is the most suitable for cultivation. In nature, Cyperus alternifolius L. Found on the island of Madagascar, along swampy river banks. Ornate cyperus can reach up to 1.7 m tall. The stems are erect, with an umbrella-shaped crown at the top, leaves hanging and linear, 0.5-1 cm wide, up to 25 cm long. Flowers appear in the sinuses, grouped by small panicles. This cyperus has two varieties:
- Gracilis. Compact, narrow leaflets.
- Variegatus. Leaves and stems are either completely white or covered with light stripes.
Spider Cyperus (Cyperus diffusus)
This species is called Cyperus diffusus Vahl. The height of the plant does not exceed 90 cm. The sprawling cyperus has few stems, but many long and wide basal leaves, which distinguishes this variety from the rest. Above they are narrower and grouped by 6-12 umbrellas. On the tops of the stems, the length of the leaves can be up to 30 cm and a width of up to 1.5 cm. The plant looks very original and is well suited for decorative cultivation.
Outwardly, this cyperus resembles a fountain. Cats simply love to feast on the greens of the Zumula detective. The plant has long leaves, flowing down a waterfall, which sometimes can be even larger in size than the stems. The height of the flower is from 50 to 100 cm, and the flowering order is determined by the conditions of detention. Tsiperus Zumula needs constant plentiful watering. It is better to keep this in partial shade, in a room with high humidity, it is allowed to place in ponds, gardens.
How to care for cyperus at home
The flower belongs to the category of hardy, it adapts well to different climatic environments. Caring for Cyperus will not cause you undue hassle. For home maintenance, such types of cyperus as papyrus, sprawling, Helfer, Zumula, ordinary leafy are suitable. The main content requirements are listed in the table below:
Spring and summer
The plant should be irrigated periodically. It is forbidden to keep near batteries.
Spraying is not required. Keep the flower in a well-ventilated area and water it.
The plant exists well with a short daylight, but it is better to put it under a fluorescent lamp.
It prefers diffused light, but is capable of withstanding the short-term effects of direct rays.
It is necessary to reduce the frequency of irrigation, while maintaining a constant soil moisture.
It is required to water plentifully and daily.
Should not fall below 12 degrees.
Average daily rates should be in the range of 17-23 degrees.
Cyperus is easy to maintain. In order for the flower to always be in good condition, you need to follow a few simple rules:
- Keep the soil always moist. If you cannot provide frequent watering, put the pot in a pan with water.
- Be sure to irrigate the foliage. The flower is not afraid of moisture. It can be watered daily from a watering can or shower. It is not necessary to take cold water.
- Fertilize the flower should be moderate, if necessary, once every two weeks. From overfeeding, it can deteriorate.
- Set the temperature and humidity.
- Do not place the pot near heating appliances or in a draft.
Lighting and location
Ciperus may exist in shading, but it is better to place it where bright diffused light will fall on it. Protection from direct sunlight is only required in summer. It is best to place the plant on eastern or western windows. So that in the summer the leaves do not get burns, it is better to remove the pots from the windowsills. It is also allowed to keep it under artificial lighting, which will require fluorescent lamps operating 16 hours a day. In shading, the whale is able to exist, but will slowly grow and develop.
Temperature and humidity
In summer, it is better to contain a flower in the range of 18-22 degrees heat. The minimum temperature limit in winter is 12 ° C, but it is better not to let it fall below 16-19 ° C. The plant needs a constant influx of fresh air, so it must be stored in a well-ventilated cool room. In summer, it can be taken out to the balcony or to the garden. It would be ideal to store cyperus in a room with a humidifier. The detective should often be sprayed with spray or kept partially submerged in water.
Watering and feeding
Cyperus is hygrophilous. In order for it to grow and develop normally, the roots must always be moist. To ensure this condition, the pot must be placed in a pot of water or a deep pan. Watering should be plentiful and daily, so that the soil does not dry out, soft, defended water is suitable for this. In winter, watering should be less plentiful, and the leaves should be constantly sprayed. In cold weather, the pot needs to be placed further from heating appliances and less often irrigation.
Top dressing will provide the flower with proper development and rapid growth. Organic or mineral fertilizers enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can be used. Top dressing can be both dry and liquid. Professional flower growers do not recommend fertilizing the flower year-round. It is better to feed once every two to three weeks from early spring to early fall. If you plan to fertilize the plant in the cold, then do this no more often than once a month. Tips:
- Follow the dosage and recommendations of the fertilizer manufacturer.
- Thoroughly spill the soil before bait.
- For young bushes, halve the dose.
- Exclude hit of solution on a green mass.
You can update the pot for adult cyperus as needed (soil depletion) at any time of the year. It is recommended that young individuals be transplanted in spring or late autumn, when growth stops, this must be done annually. It is necessary to use tall, not too wide pots. To avoid stress, the procedure should be carried out at the optimum temperature and humidity. Step-by-step transplant instructions:
- For a quarter fill the pot with drainage (expanded clay, pebbles), the rest of the volume is allocated to the prepared soil.
- Prepare the flower. Trim the damaged roots. Clean off excess old soil.
- Center a pre-prepared plant with an earthen lump.
- Add new soil on the sides. Tamp.
- If the pot will be in a pot with drainage, an aquarium or a pond with constant immersion in water, then pour sand on top.
You will need a light nutrient substrate, slightly acidic, with a pH of 5-6.5. To make the mixture for planting, take humus and peat bog soil in equal quantities. Add marsh sludge in the amount of a sixth of the total mass. To impart friability and porosity to the soil, you can pour large, washed and scalded sand with boiling water (1/6 part). Tips for selecting soil:
- You can use the finished mixture. Buy one that is designed for hygrophilous indoor plants.
- The addition of river sludge is welcome.
- Egg shells, charcoal, sifted brick chips can be added to the bottom of the container.
Reproduction of Cyperus
There are many ways to breed a flower. The detective is propagated by seeds, small rosettes, dividing the bush, apical cuttings, tubers. Choose one or another method should be based on growing conditions. The gardener's preferences and financial opportunities are also important, because the purchase of seeds or seedlings requires different material investments. If you do not have an adult plant, then the only way to plant is available - seed.
This method of playback is not too difficult and gives good results. Step-by-step instruction:
- During transplanting, carefully divide the bush with a sharp and well-sanitized knife.
- Treat the cut points with ash or activated carbon.
- The finished bush can immediately be placed in the prepared soil. The detective needs to be placed in favorable conditions, watered, fed.
- Rhizomes, tubers can be planted separately to get new plants.
- Please note that only bushes with a minimum age of two years are suitable for propagation by division. For too young samples, the root system is not ready for division.
This vegetative method of reproduction is most reminiscent of that which occurs in wild species. It can be used at any time of the year. Step-by-step instructions for reproduction:
- Cut leaf rosettes or pinch off. Grab a small portion of the stems.
- Plant them in warm sand or place in a container of water, the temperature of which is 22-25 degrees.
- When rooting occurs (white shoots appear), transplant the outlet into the prepared soil.
- Top off with a little sand.
The growing process is laborious and does not always end with a positive result. When propagating by seed, feeding often does not preserve the properties of the mother plant, for example, it loses the diversity of leaves. How to properly execute the process:
- Remove the seeds from the bag. Treat them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
- Sow the seeds in small cups with drainage holes (plastic containers are suitable) filled with a damp mixture of sheet, peat and sand in a 2: 2: 1 ratio. Do not bury them, but simply press them firmly to the ground.
- Cover the containers with a bag or glass so that the soil is constantly moist.
- Watering as needed and daily ventilation is required. The temperature should not fall below 18 degrees. The more stable the mode, the faster the shoots will appear. Avoid exposure to direct sunlight.
- When the seedlings grow up and 4-5 leaves appear on each, plant them in three pieces in small pots. The composition of the land remains the same. Young plants need abundant watering. They must be reliably protected from direct sunlight.
- When the seedlings are still growing, plant them one by one in 9-centimeter pots. The substrate is prepared from sand, peat and turf soil in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
Diseases and pests
Ciperus can be affected by a spider mite, mealybug, whitefly, scalex, and thrips, although this is rare. When these pests appear, all measures should be taken as soon as possible to save the plant. How to proceed:
- Spider mite. This harmful parasite appears in rooms with too dry air. A sign of damage is the appearance of white spots on the leaves. To get rid of the spider mite, you need to carefully wipe the stems and leaves of the plant with anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Green aphid. The pest lives and breeds in colonies. Aphids feed on the sap of plants, as a result of which the leaves curl up and dry. If a pest is found, carefully remove the traces from the flower with water. If the lesion is already too extensive, then insecticide treatment is used. You can try the treatment of folk remedies: infusion of citrus peel, red pepper, tobacco, garlic. These decoctions should be strong and cooked with a little soap.
- Thrips. This pest appears with black dots on the back of the sheet. It causes a sooty fungus and is dangerous both in the state of the larva and in adulthood. To ensure thrips-free plant health, maintain optimal indoor air humidity and hang sticky traps for flying insects. If the lesion has already occurred, treat Cyperus with Fitoverm. Dissolve 2 ml of the product in a glass of water and spray it. Put a plastic bag on the flower and do not remove it for a day.
- Mealybug. This white sucking insect is clearly visible. The worm secrets sticky mucus, enveloping the plant. This secret prevents natural gas exchange. To combat the pest, both folk remedies (as well as to eliminate green aphids) and insecticides are suitable. The most effective are Dimethoate, Diazonin, Malathion.
Signs of a weakened plant
Owners of cyperus should closely monitor him in order to timely identify that he is missing something. For a weakened flower, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- The tips of the leaves turned brown or turned yellow. This means that the air in the room where the flower stands is too dry. Water the plant, put the pot in a container of warm water and irrigate the leaves. An alternative solution to the problem could be to install an air humidifier in the room.
- If the leaves turn yellow and lose their color, then the plant needs to be fed. These signs indicate an insufficient amount of nutrients.
- If the leaves dry out and fade, then the detective does not have enough moisture. It should be watered and sprayed more often. This can also happen due to the content at too high a temperature, which is typical for a sultry hot summer. Ventilate the room regularly, do not forget about watering and irrigation.
- Too slow growth is a sign of malnutrition. The second reason for this phenomenon may be that the root system has grown greatly and the flower has become crowded in a pot.
- The absence of new stems, the shredding of leaves and their dull color indicate that the detective is not properly illuminated.
- Gray spots on the leaves are a sign of sunburn. If you notice them, remove the flower from the south window.